Featured Presentations Search Results adapted from the physical and biological sciences Research is an active, diligent and systematic process of inquiry in order to discover, interpret or revise facts, events PowerPoint PPT presentation free to view Alert you to the different types of methodology available to PowerPoint PPT presentation free to download Identify the experimental and correlational methods used to test the hypotheses
Each is discussed below. Independent Variables IV Independent variables IV are those that are suspected of being the cause in a causal relationship. If you are asking a cause and effect question, your IV will be the variable or variables if more than one that you suspect causes the effect.
There are two main sorts of IV, active independent variables and attribute independent variables: Active IV are interventions or conditions that are being applied to the participants.
A special tutorial for the third graders, a new therapy for clients, or a new training program being tested on employees would be active IVs. Attribute IV are intrinsic characteristics of the participants that are suspected of causing a result. For example, if you are examining whether gender—which is intrinsic to the participants—results in higher or lower scores on some skill, gender is an attribute IV.
Both types of IV can have what are called levels. In the example above, the active IV special tutorial, receiving the tutorial is one level, and tutorial withheld control is a second level. In the same example, being a third grader would be an attribute IV.
It could be defined as only one level—being in third grade—or you might wish to define it with more than one level, such as first half of third grade and second half of third grade. Indeed, that attribute IV could take many more, for example, if you wished to look at each month of third grade.
Independent variables are frequently called different things depending on the nature of the research question. In predictive questions where a variable is thought to predict another but it is not yet appropriate to ask whether it causes the other, the IV is usually called a predictor or criterion variable rather than an independent variable.
Dependent Variables DV Dependent variables are those that are influenced by the independent variables. If you ask,"Does A cause [or predict or influence or affect, and so on] B?
Dependent variables are variables that depend on or are influenced by the independent variables. They are outcomes or results of the influence of the independent variable. Dependent variables answer the question: What do I observe happening when I apply the intervention?
The dependent variable receives the intervention. In questions where full causation is not assumed, such as a predictive question or a question about differences between groups but no manipulation of an IV, the dependent variables are usually called outcome variables, and the independent variables are usually called the predictor or criterion variables.
Sample Variables In some studies, some characteristic of the participants must be measured for some reason, but that characteristic is not the IV or the DV. In this case, these are called sample variables. For example, suppose you are investigating whether servant leadership style affects organizational performance and successful financial outcomes.
In order to obtain a sample of servant leaders, a standard test of leadership style will be administered.
So the presence or absence of servant leadership style will be a sample variable. That score is not used as an IV or a DV, but simply to get the appropriate people into the sample. When there is no measure of a characteristic of the participants, the characteristic is called a "sample characteristic.
For this reason, most quantitative studies attempt to control extraneous variables. The literature should inform you what extraneous variables to account for. There is a special class of extraneous variables called confounding variables.
These are variables that can cause the effect we are looking for if they are not controlled for, resulting in a false finding that the IV is effective when it is not.
In a study of changes in skill levels in a group of workers after a training program, if the follow-up measure is taken relatively late after the training, the simple effect of practicing the skills might explain improved scores, and the training might be mistakenly thought to be successful when it was not.
There are many details about variables not covered in this handout. Please consult any text on research methods for a more comprehensive review. · An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a ashio-midori.comments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated.
Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the ashio-midori.comew · History · Types of experiment · Contrast with observational studyashio-midori.com · research cycle can be regarded as a learning cycle.
4. Action research studies often have direct and • Non-spuriousness --a relationship between two variables that is not due to variation in a third variable.
to a variety of different types of changes [e.g., social, cultural, political, economic, etc.]. 4. Either original data or ashio-midori.com ashio-midori.com: Research in Rehabilitation Counseling: A Guide to Design, Methodology, and Utilization, 2nd Ed.
(): James L. . · 57 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done ashio-midori.com chapter ashio-midori.com Discover the elements found in a typical research paper.
· of research variables are presented. Further, procedures used for testing the Types of Research Designs used The research design is the blueprint of the research and describes the methods used for collection, measurement and analysis of data.
According to Research Design and Methodology ashio-midori.com