Modernization is a term used to describe the transformation of a society from traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban and industrialized society. This is what our societies are going through.
Modernization Essay Modernization Essay Modernization theory is a term applied to several related social science theories that explain the process by which societies change from more traditional to more modern entities.
In its heyday in the s, modernization theory informed government policy in the United States, influencing foreign aid doctrines and the creation of the Peace Corps. After the failures of U. He argued that through structural conditions and change, every country could become modern.
Internal Marxist critique, such as that of Russian leader Vladimir I. Lenin, recognized that imperialism kept some countries from modernizing.
He expected variables to move from ascription, in which individuals are valued according to the social groups into which they were born, to achievement as the standard to determine social status; from particularism to universalism in political norms; from diffuseness to specificity in terms of social roles; from affectivity, or emotion-based attachments, to instrumentalism, or links based on utility, as the basis of personal relationships; and from a collective to a self-orientation.
Basic Tenets Modernization theory tends to focus on the movement of whole societies from traditional to modern forms. Hence, writers in the school focused on urbanization, industrialization with its attendant increase in the scale of investmentand the increasingly complex division of labor with its consequences for specialization in occupations as manifestations of development.
However, modernization theory simultaneously emphasizes individual attitudinal change as the main driver of modernization. Formal education can serve as an instrument of attitudinal change; it is but the most obvious example of the diffusion of values to areas or social groups in which tradition prevails from regions or groups that have already modernized.
The mass media are also effective in spreading modern values.
Diffusion is central to modernization theory. Early modernization theorists in particular accepted with little hesitation that individuals exposed to modern values would prefer them to traditional norms, with the exception of those who obviously benefited materially and politically from the traditional social structure.
Modern values included openness to new experiences, independence from traditional authorities, a scientific outlook, ambition, punctuality and careful use of time, desire for civic engagement, and interest in public affairs. Some modernization accounts went so far as to suggest that traditional societies did not embrace modern economic rationality but saw modern values as widely shared in the West.
Modernization implied diffusion of Western values and a cultural convergence of the already modernized West and developing countries. Modernization theorists took as their unit of analysis the nation-state or individual national society.
Aggregate individual change within a nation produced societal-level change. Modernization theorists did not heavily emphasize international forces, and to the extent they did consider factors beyond the individual society, they highlighted the positive roles that value diffusion and providing capital and technical know-how played in promoting development.
Although modernization theorists explored different dimensions of development, such as individual attitudinal change, urbanization and industrialization, political change, and economic growth, almost all agreed that modernization was a multifaceted process. Individual attitudinal change is a part of a larger process that includes shifts in social structure, the political order, and the economy.
Hence, theorizing about modernization took place at a relatively high level of abstraction to avoid excluding any element of the process. Two key processes of modernization were frequently identified as central: Scholars of the social psychological school tend to identify principles such as honor and the quest for glory as relics of traditional society.
They regard values such as acquisitiveness, thrift, and ambition as essential to economic development, and attitudes of interpersonal trust, moderation, and egalitarianism as critical to the emergence of democracy.
Rostow laid out five stages of economic development: Such capital might be gained from many sources, but to many practitioners of development, foreign lenders and foreign assistance became increasingly obvious sources of investment capital.
While economists in the modernization school saw many opportunities for governments to promote economic growth, they tended to favor the market system. Instead of the state control of the economy exercised by communist countries, they preferred policies that would lead people to take risks and become entrepreneurs.
They generally saw the transfer of technology through transnational corporations and foreign assistance as a positive way to provoke traditional societies to modernize. The Point Four Program of U. Political Development Modernization theorists approached political development with two different conceptions of what constituted political modernity.Based on the essay I write above, it is clear that the significant strength of technologies and modern ideas far outweigh the traditional ways.
As a result, I strongly suggest that the best way for traditional countries to take to promote their development is to introducing modern ideas, values and technologies. In the story "Dead Men's Path" Chinua Achebe describe the controversy between tradition and modernization in the school of Ndume.
Michael Obi is the main character of this story.
Essay On Modernization: Modernization is a term used to describe the transformation of a society from traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban and industrialized society. This is what our societies are going through.
Essay On Modernization: Modernization is a term used to describe the transformation of a society from traditional, rural, agrarian society to a secular, urban and industrialized society. This is what our societies are going through. Modernization is a conceptual tool which social scientists have widely used in analyzing the process as well as the quality of social change.
All societies have tradition, but what we describe as ‘traditional societies’ refers to a specific historical phase of social and cultural development.
Hypothesis: Modernization is the Key to economic growth for India. If modernization occurs, then the economic status of India will increase tremendously, even if the price India has to pay is a change in culture, and tradition.