An estimatedunarmed Chinese soldiers and civilians were shot or bayoneted; and an estimated 80, Chinese women in Nanjing were raped—at the rate of 1, rape cases a night — and many mutilated and killed.
Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit inafter a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs.
Koizumi had joined a secret poison gas research committee induring World War Iwhen he and other Imperial Japanese Army officers became impressed by the successful German use of chlorine gas at the second battle of Ypreswhere the Allies suffered 15, casualties as a result of the chemical attack.
A jailbreak in autumn and later explosion believed to be an attack in led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress.
In addition to the establishment of Unitthe decree also called for the establishment of an additional biological warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop later referred to as Manchuria Unit and a chemical warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department.
This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill. However, in an account by a man who worked as a junior uniformed civilian employee of the Imperial Japanese Army in Unitthe project was internally called "Holzklotz", which is a German word for log.
They included infants, the elderly, and pregnant women. The members of the unit, approximately three hundred researchers, included doctors and bacteriologists ; most were Japanese, although some were Chinese and Korean collaborators.
Researchers performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was thought that the death of the subject would affect the results.
Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body. Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines.
Parts of organs, such as the brain, lungs, and liver, were removed from some prisoners. To study the effects of untreated venereal diseasesmale and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhoeathen studied.
Prisoners were also repeatedly subject to rape by guards. The resulting choleraanthraxand plague were estimated to have killed around and possibly more thanChinese civilians. Plague-infected fleasbred in the laboratories of Unit and Unitwere spread by low-flying airplanes upon Chinese cities, including coastal Ningbo inand ChangdeHunan Province, in This military aerial spraying killed thousands of people with bubonic plague epidemics.
The effects of different water temperatures were tested by bludgeoning the victim to determine if any areas were still frozen. Variations of these tests in more gruesome forms were performed. Syphilis[ edit ] Doctors orchestrated forced sex acts between infected and non-infected prisoners to transmit the disease, as the testimony of a prison guard on the subject of devising a method for transmission of syphilis between patients shows: Four or five unit members, dressed in white laboratory clothing completely covering the body with only eyes and mouth visible, handled the tests.
A male and female, one infected with syphilis, would be brought together in a cell and forced into sex with each other. It was made clear that anyone resisting would be shot. Testimony from multiple guards blames the female victims as being hosts of the diseases, even as they were forcibly infected.
Genitals of female prisoners that were infected with syphilis were called "jam filled buns" by guards. A Youth Corps member deployed to train at Unit recalled viewing a batch of subjects that would undergo syphilis testing: Rape and forced pregnancy[ edit ] Female prisoners were forced to become pregnant for use in experiments.
The hypothetical possibility of vertical transmission from mother to child of diseases, particularly syphilis, was the stated reason for the torture. Though "a large number of babies were born in captivity", there have been no accounts of any survivors of Unitchildren included.
It is suspected that the children of female prisoners were killed or the pregnancies terminated. The testimony of a unit member that served as guard graphically demonstrated this reality: So he and another unit member took the keys to the cells and opened one that housed a Chinese woman.
One of the unit members raped her; the other member took the keys and opened another cell. There was a Chinese woman in there who had been used in a frostbite experiment.
She had several fingers missing and her bones were black, with gangrene set in. He was about to rape her anyway, then he saw that her sex organ was festering, with pus oozing to the surface.
He gave up the idea, left and locked the door, then later went on to his experimental work.In the most recent case, the Tokyo High Court in April refused compensation for 10 Chinese survivors or relatives of victims of the Nanjing Massacre and Japan's Unit , which conducted germ experiments on humans in northern China.
"Under civil law, the country does not bear responsibility either," ruled presiding judge Masahito Monguchi. "The Nanjing Massacre: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter 75 Years Ago" people before reading ashio-midori.com happened in my country right after the second world war is an unforgivable crime that stains my country's past." "Unit conducted “Field Tests” using planes in the experimental use of massive biological weapons on Chinese cities.
The massacre at Nanking was a Japanese crime and so was what Unit did. It is just that the number of the victims at Nanking is still controversial. The film details the various cruel medical experiments Unit inflicted upon the Chinese and Soviet prisoners towards the end of the war. This is the first film to be rated "III" (equivalent to the US rating NC) in Hong Kong.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using Pinyin romanization, the Nanjing Massacre or Rape of Nanjing.
Kobayashi's manga, Sensoron (A theory of war), which called the Nanjing Massacre and the enslavement of comfort women fictitious, sold almost a million copies. In one of his many provocative statements, he wrote that the Nanjing Massacre, comfort women, and Unit had become the contemporary fumie (brass tablets with a cross that.