Common use[ edit ] In ancient Greekhubris referred to actions that shamed and humiliated the victim for the pleasure or gratification of the abuser. Two well-known cases are found in the speeches of Demosthenesa prominent statesman and orator in ancient Greece. These two examples occurred when first Midias punched Demosthenes in the face in the theatre Against Midiasand second when in Against Conon a defendant allegedly assaulted a man and crowed over the victim. Yet another example of hubris appears in Aeschines ' Against Timarchuswhere the defendant, Timarchus, is accused of breaking the law of hubris by submitting himself to prostitution and anal intercourse.
The priest describes the plague that is destroying the city — a blight on the land causing famine and sickness. Recalling Oedipus' early triumph over the Sphinx, the priest begs the king to save Thebes once more.
Oedipus expresses his sympathy and concern, and announces that he has already sent his brother-in-law Creon to the oracle in an effort to end the plague. As Oedipus speaks, Creon returns with the oracle's message: The plague will end when the murderer of Laius the former King is killed or banished.
Oedipus immediately swears to take action to find the murderer and save the city. Analysis The first scene presents the problem of the play and indicates the direction of the tragedy to follow. Note especially the dramatic irony of Oedipus' determination to find and punish the murderer of Laius.
Sophocles' audience already knows that Oedipus is himself the murderer, but the characters onstage have no idea of the truth.
The oracle — and Oedipus himself — identify the king with the land, so that calamity or corruption in the king causes famine in his domain.
This principle existed in many ancient cultures. In some early societies, a famine or pestilence on the land was enough to arouse people to kill their king and choose another — hopefully purer — ruler whose ascent to power could restore the fertility of the land.
The "wasteland" of Thebes — with its hunger, disease, and death — must therefore be the responsibility of the king. Oedipus takes up the challenge, believing he can purge the land by punishing another — unconscious that he himself is the source of corruption.
In this first scene, Oedipus seems outwardly the ideal king, revealing his intelligence, responsibility, and energy — attributes that Athenians prized as their own particular virtues. But his overly eager insistence that Creon announce the oracle's words publicly betrays a certain arrogance about his abilities.
As the play unfolds, then, both Oedipus' virtues and his weaknesses will lead to his ultimate downfall. The audience can see that Oedipus' sense of responsibility for his city-state drives his search for the truth, and because of this the hero gains sympathy — even when he is at his most arrogant, and especially at his fall from power.
Glossary Thebes chief city of ancient Boeotia, in eastern central Greece. Here, the location of the tragedy. Zeus the chief deity of Greek mythology, son of Chronus and Rhea and husband of Hera.
Athena the goddess of wisdom, skills, and warfare. Apollo the god of music, poetry, prophecy, and medicine in Greek and Roman mythology. Here, Apollo is most important as the source of the prophecies of the oracle.
Cadmus a Phoenician prince and founder of Thebes; he kills a dragon and sows its teeth, from which many armed men rise, fighting each other, until only five are left to help him build the city. Sphinx a winged monster with a lion's body and the head and breasts of a woman.
Here, the monster who plagued Thebes by devouring anyone who could not answer her riddle. Delphi a town in ancient Phocis, on the slopes of Mount Parnassus; seat of the famous ancient oracle of Apollo.
Also, the revelation or response of a medium or priest.Oedipus' Downfall Essay Prompt: In a well-developed essay, consider whether hubris, fate or both are the use of Oedipus’ downfall - Oedipus' Downfall Essay introduction. Use evidence from the .
In Oedipus the King by Sophocles, Oedipus is responsible for the tragedy of his downfall. Oedipus is presented with a series of choices throughout the play, and his arrogant and stubborn nature push him to impulsively make the wrong decisions, the decisions that ultimately lead him to his downfall.
Jul 07, · Although slavery of African-Americans in the United States has been abolished for many years now, the psychological and emotional stresses have been placed upon African-Americans who still struggle to deal with the trauma of slavery.
BECK index Roman Decadence Caligula Claudius Nero Seneca's Tragedies Seneca's Stoic Ethics Judean and Roman Wars Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian 1. Sue: Commercial flights currently contribute more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in one year than does the whole of Africa.
If we want to reduce global warming . Prompt: In a well-developed essay, consider whether hubris, fate or both are the use of Oedipus’ downfall. Use evidence from the text to support your support. Hubris is defined as excessive pride or self-confidence, while fate is defined as the supposed force, principle, or power that predetermines events.