Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. The Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empireafter defeating them in a series of wars. The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century superiority of Western culture and enlightenment.
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|Be a Member of this BLOG Jan 6, Indian English Literature Indian English Literature pertains to that body of work by writers from India, who pen strictly in the English language and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous regional and indigenous languages of India. English literature in India is also intimately linked with the works of associates of the Indian diaspora, especially with people like Salman Rushdie who was born in Indian but presently resides elsewhere.|
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Share via Email A tough journey Muslims flee New Delhi after Indian independence, AP In13 years before the British withdrew from the subcontinent, a group of Indian writers met at a London hotel with a Chinese name. Among those attending the meeting at the Nanking hotel were people who wrote in Urdu, English, and Bengali, and together they drafted a manifesto for a future Indian literature, one that would locate writing at the heart of social change.
Some writers were forced to take on new nationalities as their homeland was violently divided. He found himself unable to disembark at Delhi and had to fly on to Karachi and a new life as a Pakistani.
Sahir Ludhianvi, a poet whose lyrics found a mass audience through Bombay films, made the journey in the opposite direction, moving from Pakistan to India in Almost all the writers of the PWA discovered that the post-colonial nations they had wrested from the empire were only nominally free, still divided by hierarchies of power and wealth.
Given the upheaval they faced - a million people dead along the borders of Punjab and Bengal in those early hours of nation formation, followed by famines, civil strife, wars, rebellions and authoritarian rule - the PWA acquitted itself well, laying down the foundation for other movements and other groups of writers who saw aesthetics as inseparable from questions of justice and equality.
The memory of such engagement may have faded in recent times - the tinsel glitter of celebrity being showered on a select few while writers considered troublesome or obscure are relegated to the margins - but whatever influence literature has in India comes from this idea of the writer as a partisan.
In the decades after independence, it was nearly impossible for a self-respecting writer to be a member of the post-colonial elite. These days it is not hard for an Indian writer to seal himself off from social and political turmoil, but in a country where the chattering classes are only concerned with received ideas about globalisation, progress, nationalism and the free market, a writer is unlikely to find any interesting material by being part of the establishment.
The citizens of this other India may often be illiterate and trodden down by hierarchies, but they are also irreverent and vocal, well aware that the stories people tell are some of their best weapons against grandiose structures of wealth and power.
For those of us who function as dissidents within the upper or middle classes, it is this majority that we collaborate with even as we plunder their lives for material. But there is another kind of collaboration, one harder to categorise, and that is with publishers in the west.
Writers working in English find that being read in India is still an after-effect of being published in Britain or America, in spite of the growing body of literature in English that is being published initially, or even exclusively, in India.
The relationship between Indian writers and western publishers has been in many ways a necessary collaboration, and one that does not always take the form of accepting big advances from multinational conglomerates: But publication in the west has also produced a kind of dual identity for the Indian writer in English.
If successful in the west, especially in the amount of noise made by the publicity machine, the Indian writer is understood to be part of Brand India, using the "soft power" of literature to consolidate the more muscular geopolitical reach of the state.
Some writers play along with this, performing the role of the native informant with ease. But for others, and I believe this is what makes them attractive to publishers and readers in the west, writing is shaped by their sense of literature as an engaged art, one that interprets the world as an imperfect, unfinished place rather than one where a universal system has laid down the perfect, eternal gridwork of inequality.
It is a crossroads that offers very different alternatives to Indian writers: The upheaval we are caught up in is so vast, and so uncertain - is this the best of times? He is working on a non-fiction book on India, to be published by Viking.After Independence, India became a nation state, and it was intended that English would gradually be phased out as the language of administration.
But there was no . Indian Literature after Independence of the country witnessed some major changes in terms of literary writings. Indian independence may be a historic event for its socio-political significance. But according to some writers, this event has had an outstanding impact on the creative writing done in various regional languages of the writers.
Nov 03, · However, the post- Independence Indian English drama was benefitted by the increasing interest of the foreign countries in Endian English literature in general and Indian English drama in particular.
The climate slightly ashio-midori.com: English Literature. THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN ENGLISH FICTION M.K.
Naik in his book A History of Indian English Literature defines Indian English literature as literature written originally in English by authors Indian by birth, ancestry or nationality. During the initial years of Indian English writing, the.
The Republic of India is a country in ashio-midori.com has an area of 3,, square kilometres (1,, sq mi). It is at the center of South ashio-midori.com has more than billion (1,,,) people, which is the second largest population in the world.
It is the seventh largest country in the world by area and the largest country in South ashio-midori.com is also the most populous democracy in the world. Status of English in India. Hindi is the official language of the Union Government of ashio-midori.comr, even after 70 years of Indian Independence from Britain, English is still retained with a status of the "subsidiary" official language.
Only a few hundred thousand Indians, or less than % of the total population, have English as their first language.