Holly Strawbridge Former Editor, Harvard Health By offering the taste of sweetness without any calories, artificial sweeteners seem like they could be one answer to effective weight loss. The average ounce can of sugar-sweetened soda delivers about calories, almost all of them from sugar. The same amount of diet soda—zero calories.
After Swartz committed suicide earlier this year in the face of legal troubles arising from this incident, questions were raised about why MIT, whose access to JSTOR he exploited, chose to pursue charges, and what motivated the US Department of Justice to demand jail time for his transgression.
But the question that should have been asked is why downloading scholarly research articles was a crime in the first place. Why, twenty years after the birth of the modern Internet, is it a felony to download works that academics chose to share with the world?
The Internet, after all, was invented so that scientists could communicate their research results with each other. But while you can now get immediate, free access to million videos of cats I checked this number todaythe scholarly literature — one of greatest public works projects of all time — remains locked behind expensive pay walls.
Even worse, the stranglehold existing journals have on academic publishing has stifled efforts to improve the ways scholars communicate with each other and the public. In an era when anyone can share anything with the entire world at the click of a button, the fact that it takes a typical paper nine months to be published should be a scandal.
These delays matter — they slow down progress and in many cases literally cost lives. Tonight, I will describe how we got to this ridiculous place.
How twenty years of avarice from publishers, conservatism from researchers, fecklessness from universities and funders, and a basic lack of common sense from everyone has made the research community and public miss the manifest opportunities created by the Internet to transform how scholars communicate their ideas and discoveries.
I will also talk about what some of us have been doing to liberate the scholarly literature — where we have succeeded and where there is more work to be done. And finally, with these efforts gaining traction, I will describe where we are going next.
While I talk, I want you to keep in mind that this is about more than just academic publications. This is about the future of the Internet and what we are willing to do, as individuals and societies, to ensure that information that should be free IS free. One last bit of introduction. I am a scientist, and so, for the rest of this talk, I am going to focus on the scientific literature.
But everything I will say holds equally true for other areas of scholarship. Most people date the birth of the modern scientific journal to the middle of the 17th century, when the Royal Society in England took advantage of the growing printing industry to begin publishing proceedings of their meetings for the benefit of members unable to attend, as well as for posterity.
But scholarly journals as we know them were really a product of the 19th century, when growing activity and public interest in science led to the creation of most of the big titles we know about today: They had noble missions.
Like their predecessor, these journals were enabled by the technologies of the industrial revolution — steam powered rotary printing presses and efficient rail-based mail service. But they were also severely limited by them.1.
Introduction. Over the last decade, several factors have contributed to the cost-effective rollout of high-speed mobile broadband services, including the standardisation of LTE networks, enhanced spectral efficiency and the allocation of additional spectrum (Ghosh and Ratasuk, , Holma and Toskala, ).While 4G is still reaching .
In New Jersey, Trenton Fuel Works announced details of its proposed Mgy biomass-to-fuel pilot project in Trenton, converting food, paper and yard waste Trenton Fuel Works at a facility that will cost $2 million to acquire and $65 million to retrofit and commence operations.
The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome.
Advances in the field of genomics over the past quarter-century have led to substantial reductions in the cost of genome sequencing. The underlying costs associated with different methods and strategies for sequencing genomes are of great interest because they influence the scope and scale of almost all genomics research projects.
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The decline of newspapers has been widely debated, as the industry has faced slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation.
In recent years the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen, especially in the United States, where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since