How does it work? Key concepts of gestalt therapy Gestalt therapy works through the interconnection of key concepts.
These interventions have sometimes involved formal procedures or rituals, and often included the extended family as well as non- kin members of the community see for example Ho'oponopono.
Following the emergence of specialization in various societies, these interventions were often conducted by particular members of a community — for example, a chiefpriestphysicianand so on - usually as an ancillary function.
Liebermann - who began seeing family members together for observation or therapy sessions. JacksonJohn WeaklandWilliam Fry, and later, Virginia SatirIvan Boszormenyi-Nagy, Paul Watzlawick and others — at Palo Alto in the United States, who introduced ideas from cybernetics and general systems theory into social psychology and psychotherapyfocusing in particular on the role of communication see Bateson Project.
This group was also influenced significantly by the work of US psychiatristhypnotherapistand brief therapistMilton H. Erickson - especially his innovative use of strategies for change, such as paradoxical directives see also Reverse psychology.
The members of the Bateson Project like the founders of a number of other schools of family therapy, including Carl WhitakerMurray Bowenand Ivan Boszormenyi-Nagy had a particular interest in the possible psychosocial causes and treatment of schizophreniaespecially in terms of the putative "meaning" and "function" of signs and symptoms within the family system.
The research of psychiatrists and psychoanalysts Lyman Wynne and Theodore Lidz on communication deviance and roles e. See also double bind ; family nexus.
By the mids, a number of distinct schools of family therapy had emerged. From those groups that were most strongly influenced by cybernetics and systems theorythere came MRI Brief Therapyand slightly later, strategic therapySalvador Minuchin 's Structural Family Therapy and the Milan systems model.
Partly in reaction to some aspects of these systemic models, came the experiential approaches of Virginia Satir and Carl Whitakerwhich downplayed theoretical constructs, and emphasized subjective experience and unexpressed feelings including the subconsciousauthentic communication, spontaneity, creativity, total therapist engagement, and often included the extended family.
Concurrently and somewhat independently, there emerged the various intergenerational therapies of Murray BowenIvan Boszormenyi-NagyJames Framoand Norman Paul, which present different theories about the intergenerational transmission of health and dysfunctionbut which all deal usually with at least three generations of a family in person or conceptuallyeither directly in therapy sessions, or via "homework", "journeys home", etc.
Multiple-family group therapya precursor of psychoeducational family intervention, emerged, in part, as a pragmatic alternative form of intervention - especially as an adjunct to the treatment of serious mental disorders with a significant biological basis, such as schizophrenia - and represented something of a conceptual challenge to some of the "systemic" and thus potentially "family-blaming" paradigms of pathogenesis that were implicit in many of the dominant models of family therapy.
The lates and earlys saw the development of network therapy which bears some resemblance to traditional practices such as Ho'oponopono by Ross Speck and Carolyn Attneave, and the emergence of behavioral marital therapy renamed behavioral couples therapy in the s; see also relationship counseling and behavioral family therapy as models in their own right.
There were the beginnings of a general softening of the strict demarcations between schools, with moves toward rapprochementintegration, and eclecticism — although there was, nevertheless, some hardening of positions within some schools.
These trends were reflected in and influenced by lively debates within the field and critiques from various sources, including feminism and post-modernismthat reflected in part the cultural and political tenor of the times, and which foreshadowed the emergence in the s and s of the various "post-systems" constructivist and social constructionist approaches.
While there was still debate within the field about whether, or to what degree, the systemic-constructivist and medical-biological paradigms were necessarily antithetical to each other see also Anti-psychiatry ; Biopsychosocial modelthere was a growing willingness and tendency on the part of family therapists to work in multi-modal clinical partnerships with other members of the helping and medical professions.
Traditional Western models of family therapy have historically ignored these dimensions and when white, male privilege has been critiqued, largely by feminist theory practitioners, it has often been to the benefit of middle class, white women's experiences.
Liberatory practices are based on the principles of Critical-ConsciousnessAccountability and Empowerment. These principles guide not only the content of the therapeutic work with clients but also the supervisory and training process of therapists.
Rhea Almeida, developed the Cultural Context Model as a way to operationalize these concepts into practice through the integration of culture circles, sponsors, and a socio-educational process within the therapeutic work.It demands that one does not make judgements about another person.
and not only be aware of their own feelings towards others. congruence (genuineness) and unconditional positive regard (acceptance).
and what may be right with one client on one day will not be right with another client on another . Explain the key features of one recognised ethical framework for counselling and Compare and contrast these models with the main model Chosen.!
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Assignment Unit 1: Professional Framework Report Assignment Contents: Criteria 1 Differences between a Person Using Counselling Skills and a Qualified and Trained Counsellor Criteria 2 The BACP Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy Criteria 3 Comparison of BACP Framework to other Codes and Organisational.
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