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See Article History Birth control, the voluntary limiting of human reproduction, using such means as sexual abstinencecontraceptioninduced abortionand surgical sterilization.
It includes the spacing as well as the number of children in a family. Birth control encompasses the wide range of rational and irrational methods that have been used in the attempt to regulate fertility, as well as the response of individuals and of groups within society to the choices offered by such methods.
It has been and remains controversial.
S28 Human reproduction involves a range of activities and events, from sexual intercourse through birthand depends as well on a series of physiological interactions, such as the timing of ovulation within the menstrual cycle.
The visible events are central to the transmission of life and have been subject to social and religious control. The invisible factors in human reproduction gave rise early on to speculation and in modern times have become the topic of scientific investigation and manipulation.
New knowledge relevant to birth control has diffused at different rates through various social groups and has not always been available to those with the greatest need. Hence, the conflicts and controversies surrounding birth control have been complex and impassioned. The disagreement over birth control arises in part from the debate over what is natural and what is artificial and, to some, unacceptable.
For information on human reproduction in general see reproductive system, human, and pregnancy. Natural fertility At first glance the species Homo sapiens appears to have low Birth essay process for reproduction.
Puberty begins late, pregnancy is long, normally only one baby is delivered at a time, and lactation can continue for several years.
In experiments, when mammals are placed in crowded conditions the age of sexual maturity rises, the interval between pregnancies increases, and infant mortality jumps, leading to slower growth in the population. Among human beings in analogous crowded conditions, however, in the absence of artificial birth control the opposite situation arises.
In many cases ovulation does not take place in the first several cycles after the onset of menstruation the menarche.
Once a woman is fertile, social factors determine whether she is exposed to the opportunity to become pregnant. In preindustrial Britain, couples were expected to form their own nuclear group upon marriage, and many a first-time bride was in her later 20s.
By contrast, in contemporary Third World societies that encourage extended families, girls often marry in the early teens. In all mammals whose reproduction is not tied to seasonal changes, physiological mechanisms ensure the optimum spacing of pregnancies. In the few remaining societies of hunters and gathererswhose way of life may represent the conditions under which most of human evolution took place, women nurse their babies frequently and ovulation and menstruation are suppressed for two to three years after birth.
Nomadic women of the! Kunga group of the San people of southern Africa, use no contraceptives but have a mean interval between births of 44 months and an average of four or five deliveries in a fertile lifetime.
Modern methods of birth control substitute for the control over fertility once provided by lactation and permit a degree of control over human reproduction not previously available.
The combination of high infant mortality with relatively low fertility associated with traditional patterns of breast-feeding kept population growth in preagricultural human societies virtually static. Since that time natural restraints on human reproduction have broken down at an accelerating pace.
In the mids it passed the 5,, mark. Since the Industrial Revolutionand with intensely increasing pressure in the past century, both individuals and societies have had to make important decisions about the use of birth control.
History of birth control Methods Written records of birth control methods survive from ancient times. Methods are mentioned among the various formulas and remedies recorded in the Ebers papyrusa compilation of Egyptian medical texts dating from bc.
The methods recommended by these early commentators fall into three groups: By all the methods of birth control now in use, with the exception of oral contraceptives, were understood and available in Europe and North America. The first to be developed was the condom. Folklore attributes the invention to a Dr.
Condom, said to have been alarmed by the number of illegitimate offspring of Charles II of England. It is more likely, however, that the name derives from the Latin condus, for receptacle. The earliest published description is by the Italian anatomist Gabriel Fallopius in The first condoms were made from animal intestines and for the most part were used to prevent sexual transmission of disease.
When Charles Goodyear discovered the process for vulcanization of rubber in he initiated a revolution in contraception, as well as transport, and condoms have been a popular choice for birth control since the second half of the 19th century.
The use of vaginal barriers diaphragms and caps, which are commonly used with spermicides was recorded by the German physician F.
The medical forerunner of the intrauterine device was the stem pessary, first described and illustrated in Vasectomy, or male sterilizationwas practiced in the 19th century, and the first female sterilization by surgical occlusion of the fallopian tubes was performed by a U.View Essay - Process of Birth essay from C EP at New Mexico State University.
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I like the faith message that I get out of the "literary device" viewpoint. My only minor quibble is that the order of Genesis 1 is close enough to the natural scientific order. The Full Story of Living After Trauma.
This was a long time ago and I am trying my best to be as accurate as possible, but please forgive any inaccuracies.